FDA Approves First Cellular Therapy to Treat Patients with Type 1 Diabetes
- Category: DNA RNA and Cells
- Published on Thursday, 29 June 2023 10:44
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June 28, 2023 I Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Lantidra, the first allogeneic (donor) pancreatic islet cellular therapy made from deceased donor pancreatic cells for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. Lantidra is approved for the treatment of adults with type 1 diabetes who are unable to approach target glycated hemoglobin (average blood glucose levels) because of current repeated episodes of severe hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) despite intensive diabetes management and education.
“Severe hypoglycemia is a dangerous condition that can lead to injuries resulting from loss of consciousness or seizures,” said Peter Marks, M.D., Ph.D., director of the FDA’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. “Today’s approval, the first-ever cell therapy to treat patients with type 1 diabetes, provides individuals living with type 1 diabetes and recurrent severe hypoglycemia an additional treatment option to help achieve target blood glucose levels.”
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease that requires lifelong care including requiring insulin, either through multiple daily injections or continuous infusion using a pump, every day to live. People with type 1 diabetes also perform blood glucose checks several times a day to guide the management of their diabetes.
Some people with type 1 diabetes have trouble managing the amount of insulin needed every day to prevent hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) without causing hypoglycemia. They may also develop hypoglycemia unawareness, where they are unable to detect their blood glucose is dropping and may not have a chance to treat themselves to prevent their blood glucose from further dropping. This makes it difficult to dose insulin. Lantidra provides a potential treatment option for these patients.
The primary mechanism of action of Lantidra is believed to be the secretion of insulin by the infused allogeneic islet beta cells. In some patients with type 1 diabetes, these infused cells can produce enough insulin, so the patient no longer needs to take insulin (by injections or pump) to control their blood sugar levels. Lantidra is administered as a single infusion into the hepatic (liver) portal vein. An additional infusion of Lantidra may be performed depending on the patient’s response to the initial dose.
The safety and effectiveness of Lantidra was evaluated in two non-randomized, single-arm studies in which a total of 30 participants with type 1 diabetes and hypoglycemic unawareness received at least one infusion and a maximum of three infusions. Overall, 21 participants did not need to take insulin for a year or more, with 11 participants not needing insulin for one to five years and 10 participants not needing insulin for more than five years. Five participants did not achieve any days of insulin independence.
Adverse reactions associated with Lantidra varied with each participant depending on the number of infusions they received and the length of time they were followed and may not reflect the rates observed in practice The most common adverse reactions included nausea, fatigue, anemia, diarrhea and abdominal pain. A majority of participants experienced at least one serious adverse reaction related to the procedure for infusing Lantidra into the hepatic portal vein and the use of immunosuppressive medications needed to maintain the islet cell viability. Some serious adverse reactions required discontinuation of immunosuppressive medications, which resulted in the loss of islet cell function and insulin independence. These adverse events should be considered when assessing the benefits and risks of Lantidra for each patient. Lantidra is approved with patient-directed labeling to inform patients with type 1 diabetes about benefits and risks of Lantidra.
The FDA granted approval of Lantidra to CellTrans Inc.
The FDA, an agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, protects the public health by assuring the safety, effectiveness, and security of human and veterinary drugs, vaccines and other biological products for human use, and medical devices. The agency also is responsible for the safety and security of our nation’s food supply, cosmetics, dietary supplements, products that give off electronic radiation, and for regulating tobacco products.