KYPROLIS® (carfilzomib) Extended Overall Survival In Patients With Relapsed Or Refractory Multiple Myeloma In Phase 3 ASPIRE Trial
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- Published on Tuesday, 12 December 2017 09:16
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Results Highlighted During Oral Presentation at ASH 2017
Addition of KYPROLIS to Lenalidomide and Dexamethasone Reduced the Risk of Death by 21 Percent Versus Lenalidomide and Dexamethasone Alone
Regulatory Applications Submitted in the U.S. to add ASPIRE Overall Survival Results to KYPROLIS Label
THOUSAND OAKS, CA, USA I December 11, 2017 I Amgen (NASDAQ: AMGN) today announced new results showing the positive overall survival (OS) findings from the final analysis of the Phase 3 ASPIRE trial. The study met the key secondary endpoint of OS, demonstrating that the addition of KYPROLIS® (carfilzomib) to lenalidomide and dexamethasone (KRd) reduced the risk of death by 21 percent versus lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone (Rd) and extended survival by 7.9 months in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (median OS 48.3 months for KRd versus 40.4 months for Rd, HR = 0.79, 95 percent CI, 0.67 – 0.95; p = 0.0045). These results were presented today during an oral presentation at the 59th American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting & Exposition in Atlanta (ASH abstract #743).
"While significant advances have recently been made in treating relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma, most reported clinical trials have focused on how long a new treatment helps prevent recurrence of disease rather than on survival," said Keith Stewart, M.B., Ch.B., Mayo Clinic in Arizona and principal investigator of the ASPIRE trial. "Results from the ASPIRE trial are among the first to show a significant overall survival advantage resulting from adding carfilzomib to lenalidomide and dexamethasone treatment in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. The data support the early use of carfilzomib as an effective therapy at first relapse, regardless of prior treatment with Velcade or transplant."
"KYPROLIS-based regimens are the first and only to demonstrate superior overall survival versus today's standard of care in two Phase 3 studies and are resetting survival expectations for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma patients," said David Reese, M.D., senior vice president of Translational Sciences and Oncology at Amgen. "We are pleased with the KYPROLIS overall survival data presented at ASH this year as the results underscore our commitment to developing innovative treatment options to help cancer patients live longer."
The final analysis of ASPIRE included subgroup analyses by prior lines of therapy, prior Velcade exposure at first relapse, and prior transplant at first relapse. Among these three groups, there was an 18 to 29 percent reduction in the risk of death for KRd versus Rd, consistent with findings in the overall population. Median OS was 11.4 months longer for KRd versus Rd in patients who had received one prior line of therapy (47.3 versus 35.9 months [HR = 0.81, 95 percent CI, 0.62 – 1.06]) and 6.5 months longer for patients with two or more prior lines (48.8 versus 42.3 months [HR = 0.79, 95 percent CI, 0.62 – 0.99]).
Notably the maximum OS improvement of 11 months was observed for patients at first relapse. This OS analysis supports the early use of KYPROLIS as effective therapy at first relapse, regardless of prior Velcade exposure or transplant. Patients treated with KRd reported improved global health status, with higher Global Health Status/Quality of Life (QoL) scores compared with Rd over 18 cycles of treatment (1‑sided p‑value = 0.0001) measured with the EORTC QLQ‑C30, an instrument validated in multiple myeloma.
Overall survival by Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) stage was also assessed. For R-ISS stage I (KRd, n = 42; Rd, n = 46), median OS was not reached for KRd and was 58 months for Rd (HR = 0.49, 95 percent CI, 0.26 – 0.92). For patients with R-ISS stage II (KRd, n = 194; Rd, n = 195), median OS was 45.4 months for KRd and 41.2 months for Rd (4.2 months; HR = 0.86, 95 percent CI, 0.68 – 1.10). For the small number of patients with R-ISS stage III (KRd, n = 37; Rd, n = 47), median OS was 23.3 months for KRd and 18.8 months for Rd (4.5 months; HR = 1.05, 95 percent CI, 0.66 – 1.68).
The safety data from ASPIRE was consistent with the known safety profile of KYPROLIS. The most common adverse events (greater than or equal to 20 percent) in the KYPROLIS arm were diarrhea, anemia, neutropenia, fatigue, upper respiratory tract infection, pyrexia, cough, hypokalemia, thrombocytopenia, muscle spasms, pneumonia, nasopharyngitis, nausea, constipation, insomnia and bronchitis.
Overall survival results from the Phase 3 ENDEAVOR head-to-head study of KYPROLIS plus dexamethasone (Kd) versus Velcade plus dexamethasone were also presented at ASH and showed that Kd was superior in extending survival across a variety of sub-group analyses of relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma patients, including age, prior line of therapy and previous exposure to Velcade (ASH abstract #1885, ASH abstract #1850).
The KRd and Kd regimens used in these trials are currently approved in the U.S., European Union and other countries based on primary analyses of progression-free survival (PFS) in the ASPIRE and ENDEAVOR studies, respectively. The KYPROLIS dosing used for ASPIRE (27 mg/m2; 10-minute infusion) and ENDEAVOR (56 mg/m2; 30-minute infusion) were optimized for each treatment regimen and are the currently approved doses for the KRd and Kd regimens, respectively.1
Based on the ASPIRE results, Amgen has submitted a supplemental New Drug Application to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to include the OS data from ASPIRE in the product information for KYPROLIS.
The international, randomized Phase 3 ASPIRE (CArfilzomib, Lenalidomide, and DexamethaSone versus Lenalidomide and Dexamethasone for the treatment of PatIents with Relapsed Multiple MyEloma) trial evaluated KYPROLIS in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone, versus lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone, in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma following treatment with one to three prior regimens. The primary endpoint of the trial was PFS, defined as the time from treatment initiation to disease progression or death. Secondary endpoints included OS, overall response rate, duration of response, disease control rate, health-related quality of life and safety. Patients were randomized to receive KYPROLIS (20 mg/m2 on days 1 and 2 of cycle one, escalating to 27 mg/m2 on days 8, 9, 15 and 16 of cycle one and continuing on days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15 and 16 of subsequent cycles), in addition to a standard dosing schedule of lenalidomide (25 mg per day for 21 days on, 7 days off) and low-dose dexamethasone (40 mg per week in four-week cycles), versus lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone alone. The study randomized 792 patients at sites in North America, Europe and Israel.
For the overall study population, treatment discontinuation due to an adverse event occurred in 19.9 percent of patients treated with KRd and 21 percent of patients receiving Rd. Fatal adverse events were reported in 11.5 percent of KRd-treated patients and 10.5 percent of patients treated with Rd. Grade ≥3 adverse event rates were 87 percent for KRd and 83 percent for Rd. Selected grade ≥3 adverse events of interest (grouped terms; KRd vs Rd) included acute renal failure (3.8 percent versus 3.3 percent), cardiac failure (4.3 percent versus 2.1 percent), ischemic heart disease (3.8 percent versus 2.3 percent), hypertension (6.4 percent versus 2.3 percent), and hematopoietic thrombocytopenia (20.2 percent versus 14.9 percent).
The randomized ENDEAVOR (RandomizEd, OpeN Label, Phase 3 Study of Carfilzomib Plus DExamethAsone Vs Bortezomib Plus DexamethasOne in Patients With Relapsed Multiple Myeloma) trial of 929 patients evaluated KYPROLIS in combination with low-dose dexamethasone, versus Velcade with low-dose dexamethasone in relapsed or refractory patients who previously received at least one, but not more than three prior therapeutic regimens. The primary endpoint of the trial was PFS, defined as the time from treatment initiation to disease progression or death. The primary analysis was published in The Lancet Oncology and is described in the Prescribing Information.
Patients received treatment until progression with KYPROLIS as a 30-minute infusion on days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15 and 16 of 28 day treatment cycles, along with low-dose dexamethasone (20 mg). For cycle one only, KYPROLIS was administered at 20 mg/m2 on days 1 and 2, and if tolerated was escalated to 56 mg/m2 from day 8 cycle one onwards. Patients who received Velcade (1.3 mg/m2) with low-dose dexamethasone (20 mg) were treated with Velcade administered subcutaneously or intravenously at the discretion of the investigator and in accordance with regional regulatory approval of Velcade. More than 75 percent of the patients in the control arm received Velcade subcutaneously. This study was conducted at 235 sites worldwide. For information about this trial, please visit www.clinicaltrials.gov under trial identification number NCT01568866.
About Multiple Myeloma
Multiple myeloma is an incurable blood cancer, characterized by a recurring pattern of remission and relapse.2 It is a rare and life-threatening disease that accounts for approximately one percent of all cancers. 3,4 Worldwide, approximately 114,000 people are diagnosed with multiple myeloma each year and 80,000 patient deaths are reported on an annual basis.3
About KYPROLIS® (carfilzomib)
Proteasomes play an important role in cell function and growth by breaking down proteins that are damaged or no longer needed.5 KYPROLIS has been shown to block proteasomes, leading to an excessive build-up of proteins within cells.5 In some cells, KYPROLIS can cause cell death, especially in myeloma cells because they are more likely to contain a higher amount of abnormal proteins. 5,6
KYPROLIS is approved in the U.S. for the following:
- In combination with dexamethasone or with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who have received one to three lines of therapy.
- As a single agent for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who have received one or more lines of therapy.
KYPROLIS is also approved in Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Hong Kong, Israel, Japan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Macao, Mexico, Thailand, Colombia, S. Korea, Canada, Qatar, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, Turkey, Russia, Brazil, India, Oman and the European Union. Additional regulatory applications for KYPROLIS are underway and have been submitted to health authorities worldwide.
About Amgen's Commitment to Oncology
Amgen Oncology is committed to helping patients take on some of the toughest cancers, such as those that have been resistant to drugs, those that progress rapidly through the body and those where limited treatment options exist. Amgen's supportive care treatments help patients combat certain side effects of strong chemotherapy, and our targeted medicines and immunotherapies focus on more than a dozen different malignancies, ranging from blood cancers to solid tumors. With decades of experience providing therapies for cancer patients, Amgen continues to grow its portfolio of innovative and biosimilar oncology medicines.
Amgen is committed to unlocking the potential of biology for patients suffering from serious illnesses by discovering, developing, manufacturing and delivering innovative human therapeutics. This approach begins by using tools like advanced human genetics to unravel the complexities of disease and understand the fundamentals of human biology.
Amgen focuses on areas of high unmet medical need and leverages its expertise to strive for solutions that improve health outcomes and dramatically improve people's lives. A biotechnology pioneer since 1980, Amgen has grown to be one of the world's leading independent biotechnology companies, has reached millions of patients around the world and is developing a pipeline of medicines with breakaway potential.
- Jakubowiak A. Evolution of Carfilzomib Dose and Schedule in Patients With Multiple Myeloma: A Historical Overview. Cancer Treatment Review. 2014; 40(6):781-790.
- Jakubowiak A. Management Strategies for Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma: Current Clinical Perspectives. Seminars in Hematology. 2012; 49(3)(1),S16-S32.
- GLOBOCAN 2012. Global Prevalence and Incidence. Available at: http://globocan.iarc.fr/old/summary_table_pop_prev.asp?selection=224900&title=World&sex=0&window=1&sort=0&submit=%C2%A0Execute%C2%A0http://globocan.iarc.fr/old/summary_table_pop_prev.asp?selection=224900&title=World&sex=0&window=1&sort=0&submit=%C2%A0Execute%C2%A0. Accessed on Nov. 3, 2017.
- American Cancer Society. About Multiple Myeloma. Available at https://www.cancer.org/content/dam/CRC/PDF/Public/8738.00.pdf. Accessed on Nov. 3, 2017.
- Moreau P, Richardson PG, Cavo M, et al. Proteasome Inhibitors in Multiple Myeloma: 10 Years Later. Blood. 2012; 120(5):947-959.
- Kortuem KM and Stewart AK. Carfilzomib. Blood. 2012; 121(6):893-897.